Cytoprotective. Reduces damage to proximal renal tubules. Increases glomerular filtration rate(GFR). Stimulates gluconeogenesis. Suppresses proteolysis in skeletal muscles. Has a strong anti-inflammatory effect. Precursor for nitric oxide. Decreases renal blood pressure. Enhances expression of bone morphogenic protein-7(BMP-7), a hormone that causes re-generation and repair of kidney tissue. Increases renal vasodilation.